Digital Supplement to the manuscript:


Kaplan, A., 2021: Random Error in Space-Time Bin Averages of Sea Surface Temperature Observations from Ships. Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters, was transferred to Earth and Space Science, under review. To download in PDF.



Pre-computed monthly 1°x1° bin statistics of ICOADS Ship SST data and ESA SST CCI Analysis

calculated as described in Sec 2.3 of the manuscript (e.g., M_o, S_o, N_o, M_a, S_a, N_a, M_eao, S_ea, M_d, etc) are all accessible here via the Granger clone of the IRI/LDEO Data Library (a.k.a. Ingrid), created by Dr. M. Benno Blumenthal (1959-2018). Here are the examples of fields from these files:
M_o


S_o

N_o

M_a


S_a

N_a

M_d


S_ea

M_eao



Digital access to fields, visualized in the figures of the manuscript

Figure 1

        (a) % of monthly 1°x1° SST bins with N_o ≥ 2, 47.8%
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        (b) RMS D of ship-satellite difference d_M, 0.99°C
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                (c) Zonal means of SST differences d_M, °C, between bin-averaged ship observations and CCI Analysis
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(d) Number of DOF in anomalies, 71.3
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            (e) RMS D' of ship-satellite anomaly d_M - b_c, 0.91°C
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        (f) Estimate E of binned anomaly RMS D', 0.74°C
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        (g) Relative discrepancy ρ, 81%
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               Figure 2

                  Empirical probability of |ρ| as a function of DOF in anomalies of bin-averaged ship SST observations
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               Figure 3

        (a) ERMSE E_Mo of bin-averaged ship SST, 0.67°C
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        (c)Intra-bin SD of ship observations σ_Bo, 1.20°C
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        (e) Sampling ESDE υ_o, 0.50°C
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        (g) Sampling ESDE υ, 0.57°C
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        (i) same as (f), but in 30X30 averages, 1.13°C
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        (b) ERMSE E_Ma of bin-averaged CCI, 0.31°C
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        (d) Error reduction factor 1/sqrt(N), 0.57
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        (f) Ship measurement ESDE σ_o, 1.14°C
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          (h) Kent & Challenor(2006) ship ESDE, 1.26°C
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          (j) Relative difference ρ (h) vs (i), 18%
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Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) grant OCE-1853717 and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) grant NA17OAR4310156.